Evaluation of Sargassum fluitans (Borgessen, 1914) As an Alternative Energy Source in the Production of Feeds for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822)
PDF

Keywords

Maize replacement
Sargassum-based diet
Clarias gariepinus
growth performance

Abstract

The study investigated the possibility of utilizing seaweed (Sargassum fluitans), as an alternative source for maize in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Sargassum fluitans were collected by handpicking during low tides from the shores of Suntan Sea Beach, Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria. The seaweed was washed thoroughly with borehole water, rinsed with distilled water, and sun-dried for 1 week. The experimental diet consists of a control; ingredients including maize but no Sargassum meal at all as treatment 1, 5% maize meal replaced with Sargassum as treatment 2, 10% of maize meal replaced with Sargassum as treatment 3, 20% of maize meal replaced with Sargassum as treatment 4, Sargassum only, no maize at all, as treatment 5. A total of 180 fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (20–25 g weight and 14–16 cm in length) were stocked in 1000-litre capacity tanks at the rate of twenty (20) fish per tank. The various proportions of sargassum replacing maize were allotted to the fish stocked in the tanks in replicate.  The fish were reared for 3 months on the experimental diet. The results showed that fish fed with Sargassum only (no maize) had the highest (43.14±9.57%) growth performance index, followed by the control diet (38.15±8.76%). However, fish fed a 10 % Sargassum diet had the lowest (34.86±7.66%) growth performance index. In conclusion, Sargassum is a potential alternative to maize in the diet of C. gariepinus. Sargassum is 100% free, and its processing is very cheap. Hence, catfish farmers can increase their income by reducing the cost of feed used for their fish.

PDF

References

Ashour, M., Mabrouk, M.M., Ayoub, H.F., et al. (2020). Effect of dietary seaweed extract supplementation on growth, feed utilization, hematological indices, and non-specific immunity of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Appl. Phycol., 32(5), 3467–3479.

Baghel, R. S., Choudhary, B., Pandey, S., Pathak, P.K., Patel, M.K. and Mishra, A. (2023). Rehashing our insight of seaweeds as a potential source of foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Foods 12(19), 36-42.

Costa, M.M., Oliveira, S.T.L., Balen, R.E., Bueno Junior, G., Baldan, L.T., Silva, L.C.R. and Santos, L.D. (2013) Brown seaweed meal to Nile tilapia fingerlings. Arch. Zootec., 62, 101-109.

Davies, S. J., Brown, M. T. and Camilleri, M. (1997). Preliminary assessment of the seaweed Porphyra purpurea in artificial diets for thick-lipped grey mullet (Chelon labrows). Aquaculture, 152:249-258.

FAO. (2020). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020.Sustainability in Action. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. https://doi.org/10.4060/ca9229en.

Gazali, M., Effendi,I., Husni, A., Nurjanah,N., Wahyuni,S., Kurniawan,R. (2024) Sargassum sp. extract improve the hematological profile of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).F1000Research,12(293),1-18. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.128819.4.

Immanuel, G., Sivagnanavelmurugan, M., Marudhupandi, T., Radhakrishnan, S. and Palavesam, A. (2012). The effect of fucoidan from brown seaweed, Sargassum wightii on WSSV resistance and immune activity in shrimp (Penaeus monodon)(Fab). Fish Shellfish Immun., 32, 551-564.

Kendel, M., Wielgosz-Collin, G., Bertrand, S., Roussakis, C., Bourgougnon,N. and Bedoux, G. (2015). Lipid composition, fatty acids and sterols in the seaweeds Ulvaar moricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An analysis from nutritional, chemotaxonomic, and anti-proliferative activity perspectives. Mar.Drugs, 13, 5606-5628.

Kim, S.K., Choi, W.S., Kang, J.C. and Kim, Y.S. (2017). Effects of Sargassum meal as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet of juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Aquaculture Nutrition, 23(1),73-80.
Kumar, Y., Tarafdar, A. and Badgujar, P.C. (2021). Seaweed as a source of natural antioxidants: Therapeutic activity and food applications. Journal of Food Quality, 1–7.

Leonard, S. G., Sweeney, T., Bahar, B., Lynch, B. P., and O’Doherty, J. V. (2011). Effects of dietary seaweed extract supplementation in sows and post-weaned pigs on performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, and immune status. British Journal of Nutrition, 106(5), 688-699. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0007114511000997.

Marinho, G., Nunes, C., Sousa-Pinto, I., Pereira, R., Rema, P., and Valente, L.M. (2013). The IMTA-cultivated Chlorophyta Ulva spp. as a sustainable ingredient in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diets. Journal of Applied Phycology, 25(5), 1359-1367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-012-9965-3.

Mouritsen, O. G.(2013). Seaweeds: Edible, available, and sustainable. University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226044538.001.0001.

Mwendwa, R., Wawire, M., and Kahenya, P. (2023). Potential for Use of Seaweed as a Fish Feed Ingredient: A Review. Journal of Agricultural Science, 15(2), 96-108.

Pangestuti, R., and Kim, S.K. (2015). Seaweed proteins, peptides, and amino acids. Seaweed Sustainability (pp. 125-140). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-418697-2.00006-4.

Pratiwi, D.Y. and Pratiwy, F.M. (2022). A review-the effect of dietary supplementation of Ulva on the growth performance and haematological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud., 10(1), 29–32.

Pratiwy,F.M. and Rosidah, R.(2022).The effect of enzymatic Sargassum extract on feed consumption, feed utlitization efficiency, and growth rate of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies,10(4), 28-32.

Pratiwy, F.M., Kohbara, J., and Susanto, A.B. (2018). Effectiveness of Sargassum meal as feed additive on growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquacult. Sci., 66(1), 25-31.
Radulovich, R., Umanzor, S., Cabrera, R., and Mata, R. (2015). Tropical seaweeds for human food, their cultivation and its effect on biodiversity enrichment. Aquaculture, 436, 40-46.

Ragaza, J. A., R. E. Mamauag, S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa and S. Yokoyama (2013) Comparative effects of dietary supplementation levels of Eucheuma denticulatum andSargassum fulvellum in diet of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquacult. Sci., 61, 27-37.

Reddy, P.B., , A. and Verma, A.K.(2024).Seaweed as a functional feed supplement in animal diet–A review. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 94 (4), 291–300.

Sonmez, A.Y., Bilen, S., Tastan, Y., et al. (2021). Oral administration of Sargassum polycystum extracts stimulates immune response and increases survival against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 117:291–298.

Sudharsan, S., Seedevi, P., Ramasamy, P., Subhapradha, N., Vairamani, S., and Shanmugam, A. (2012). Heavy metal accumulation in seaweeds and sea grasses along the southeast coast of India. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4(9),4240-4244.

Teganeh, S. and Adel, M. (2018). Effects of dietary algae (Sargassum ilicifolium) as immunomodulator and growth promoter of juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758). J. Appl. Phycol., 31:2093–2102.

Wan, A.H., Davies, S.J., Soler-Vila, A., Fitzgerald, R., and Johnson, M.P. (2019). Macroalgae as a sustainable aquafeed ingredient. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11(3),458-492.

Wang, T., Huang, Y.,Chen, H., Cai, X.,Ye, S. and Lu,Y. (2018). Partial replacement of fish meal with Sargassum thunbergi in diets of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture Nutrition, 24(1): 416-424.

WHO (2017). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. Geneva: World Health Organization; Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0IGO.T. b

Yangthong, M., Ruensirikul, J. and Kaneko, G. (2022). The Hot-Water Extract of Sargassum sp. As a Feed Ingredient for Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus Linnaeus, 1766) Reared in Songkhla Lake: Effect on Growth, Feed Efficiency, Hematological Data and Body Composition. Fishes, 7: 170-176.

Zamannejad, N., Emadi, H. and Hafezieh, M. (2016) Effects of supplementation of algae (Sargassum ilicifolium) on growth, survival and body composition of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Iranian J. Fish. Sci., 15:194-205.